Probiotic Prebiotic supplement health benefit and product research studies, dosage, benefit for gastrointestinal system and gut health, daily dosage and potential risks and side effects

March 23 2014

Probiotics are live microorganisms which provide a health benefit. Most probiotics are bacteria similar to the type normally found the people's guts, the "good" bacteria, which helps maintain a balance in the digestive tract and may confer natural protection against disease. The most common probiotics taken as supplements are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Humans normally carry several pounds of bacteria in their intestines and they are key to digestion, immune system function and possibly play other beneficial roles. They can also out-compete "bad" bacteria that cause disease.
   Once you buy a probiotic supplement, you should refrigerate it to prolong the shelf life.

How they benefit
Probiotics and prebiotics are two food ingredients that have physiologic effects through the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms that (when ingested) have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific medical conditions. These microorganisms are believed to exert biological effects through a phenomenon known as colonization resistance, whereby the indigenous anaerobic flora limits the concentration of potentially harmful (mostly aerobic) germs in the digestive tract. Other modes of action, such as supplying enzymes or influencing enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract, may also account for some of the other functions.

buy Enhanced Probiotic System, Jarrow Formulas

• Higher Potency 4.4 Billion Organisms per capsules
• Species with Documented strain morinaga Bifidobacteria longum BB536
• Dairy Free
• Vegetarian
• Enteric Coated!
• Room Temperature Stable! No Refrigeration Required!
• For Intestinal and Immune Health
• Probiotic Supplement
• Individually Blister Sealed

Buy this Probiotic supplement today
Jarro-Dophilus enhanced probiotic system is room temperature stable, but preferably refrigerate to safeguard product from heat. Blister packaging each capsule provides extra protection to the bacteria against moister and oxygen. At time of manufacture, each capsule contains approximately 4.4 Billion organisms. Jarro-Dophilus enhanced probiotic system is room temperature stable and enteric-coated, delivering directly into the intestines 8 different species of probiotics representing 4 genera of bacteria: Lactobacilllus, Bifidobacteria, Lactococcus and Pediococcus Bifodobacteria longum BB536 (moringa strain) has been shown to colonize, stimulate immune response and suppress intestinal pathogens. L. rhamnosus R0011 is a unique, high producer of polysaccharides, which facilitate colonization and stimulate intestinal immune response. Lactococcus and Pediococcus help reduce spoilage caused by undesirable bacteria in cultured dairy products.

Supplement Facts:
Probiotic Bacteria 4.4 Billion
Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus R0011 (15.4%) 680 Million
L. casei R0256 (15%) 680 Million
Lactobacillus plantarum R0202 (7.7%) 340 Million
L. acidophilus R0052 (15%) 680 Million
Bifidobacterium longum BB536 (morinaga strain)(15.4%) 680 Million
Bifidobacterium breve R0070 (7%) 340 Million
Pediococcus (15%) 670 Million
acidilactici R1001
Lactococcus lactis 330 Million
diacetylactis R0100

Benefit and medical uses
Probiotic have been defined as live microorganisms that (when ingested) have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific medical conditions. These microorganisms are believed to exert biological effects through a phenomenon known as colonization resistance, whereby the indigenous anaerobic flora limits the concentration of potentially harmful (mostly aerobic) germs in the digestive tract. Other modes of action, such as supplying enzymes or influencing enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract, may also account for some of the other functions that have been attributed to probiotic.

Synbiotic therapy, combining probiotics and prebiotics
Synbiotic therapy could prove more effective in the treatment of certain medical conditions than therapies limited to probiotics or prebiotics.

Additional products available online
Multi-Flora Plus Supplement Minimizes Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Source Naturals Bifidyn contains two complementary forms of bifidus. Bifidobacterium longum is an acid-stable and viable strain of bifidus for successful implantation into the digestive tract. Bifiidobacterium bifidum is the form that is naturally found at high levels in mothers' breast milk, and is predominant in healthy infants' colons.
Source Naturals Life Flora, 5 Billion Cells, 90 Capsules

Different strains of probiotic bifidobacteria include:
Bifidobacterium adolescentis

Different strains of probiotic lactobacilli include:
Lactobacillus fermentum
Lactobacillus reuteri has various health benefits.

Allergic rhinitis and asthma
Probiotics for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008. Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
To evaluate the clinical evidence for the use of probiotics as a therapeutic modality for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Randomized controlled trials that studied the effects of probiotics administration on the treatment but not the prevention of allergic rhinitis and asthma were selected for inclusion in this review. Nine of the 12 RCTs that evaluated clinical outcomes in allergic rhinitis showed an improvement due to the use of probiotics. All the RCTs that studied perennial allergic rhinitis showed lower symptom scoring and medication use with the use of probiotics compared with placebo. Also, 5 of the 8 RCTs that referred to seasonal allergic rhinitis suggested an improvement in clinical outcomes. Nine RCTs that reported various immunologic measurements of allergy found no significant probiotic effects. The RCTs that studied the effect of probiotic administration on the treatment of asthma showed no positive effects. Probiotics may have a beneficial effect in allergic rhinitis by reducing symptom severity and medication use.

Atomic dermatitis
Efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Annals Allergy Asthma Immunolology. 2008. Department of Pediatrics, Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio, USA.
To determine whether probiotics are efficacious in treating atopic dermatitis and to explore whether type of probiotic used, duration of therapy, patient age, severity of disease, and IgE sensitization are factors in determining efficacy. For this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials describing the efficacy of probiotics in atopic dermatitis, a comprehensive search was performed of databases through January 2008. Eleven studies were identified, and data from 10 studies were available to analyze. There was an overall statistically significant difference favoring probiotics compared with placebo in reducing the Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis Severity Index score. Children with moderately severe disease were more likely to benefit. Duration of probiotic administration, age, and type of probiotic used did not affect outcome. Data from this meta-analysis suggest a modestrole for probiotics in pediatric atopic dermatitis. The effect is seen in moderately severe rather than mild disease.

Athletes and athletic performance
Endurance runners or other athletes have strenuous training regimens which can erode their immunity and make them more vulnerable to catching colds or other viruses. A daily dose of probiotic bacteria enhances their immune system and help reduce the risk for infections.

Crohn's disease
Nippon Medical School in Tokyo, Japan. investigators used a combination of probiotic and prebiotic supplements in the treatment of active Crohn's disease in oung Crohn's disease patients who had not benefited from prescription medications. Patients were started on both probiotics (75 billion colony forming units daily) and prebiotics (psyllium 10 grams daily). Probiotics were mainly in the form of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus bacteria. After about a year, six patients had a complete response, one had a partial response, and three were non-responders. Two patients were able to discontinue their prednisolone therapy, while four patients decreased their dosage.

Diarrhea in children
Many infants and children may be lacking beneficial bacteria, and supplements could potentially help them get fewer infections. Compared with standard formulas, those containing beneficial "probiotic" organisms seem to reduce the number and duration of diarrhea episodes in infants attending childcare centers. Of two types of probiotics tested -- Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium lactis -- Lactobacillus may be the better supplement, according to the report in the medical journal Pediatrics. Probiotic supplements
affect the immune response by improving the intestinal microbial balance leading to enhanced antibody production. Another study indicates that children who take probiotic supplements suffer fewer respiratory infections.

Dr. Alfredo Guarino, from the University of Naples in Italy, enrolled 571 children, between 3 and 36 months of age, who presented to a pediatrician with acute diarrhea. The children were randomized to an oral rehydration control group or to one of five probiotic groups (all formulations were given twice daily plus oral rehydration): Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG; Saccharomyces boulardii; Bacillus clausii; Enterococcus faecium SF68; or a mixture of L. delbrueckii var bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, L. acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Compared with oral rehydration alone, treatment with the L. rhamnosus strain GG or the mixture of four probiotic strains significantly reduced the median duration of diarrhea from 115 hours to 78 and 70 hours, respectively. By contrast, the other probiotic treatments had no significant effect on the duration or frequency of diarrhea.

Food allergy
Prebiotics and probiotics in the prevention and treatment of food allergy.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008.
Studies on prevention suggest that probiotic supplementation reduces IgE-associated eczema. It seems that prenatal administration is of importance. Colonization seems to be readily achieved, so there is proof of concept. However, after cessation of the administration, a rapid decline in colonization is evident. IgE sensitization in atopic eczema is a risk factor for allergic airways disease, and the reduced IgE-associated atopic eczema demonstrated may be an indication of less respiratory allergic disease later. Administration of probiotics to children with allergy or at risk of allergy seems to stimulate a low-grade inflammation by activating the innate immune system and further production of IL-10. Modulation of commensal bacteria of the gut with probiotics has been shown to modulate the immune system and to have an effect on both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. The effects have been highly variable depending on the mode of treatment and the optimal treatment remains unsettled at present.

Hay fever
Claudio Nicoletti and colleagues at the Institute of Food Research in Norwich, Britain asked volunteers with a history of seasonal allergies to consume a daily milk drink with or without Lactobacillus casei over a five-month period. People who consumed the probiotic drink had lower levels of an antibody that help produce allergy symptoms and had higher levels of a different antibody, called IgG that may play a protective role against allergic reactions.

Immune system
A probiotic supplement enhances systemic cellular immune responses and may be useful as a dietary supplement to boost natural immunity in otherwise healthy adults.
Probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bifidobacteria are believed to positively affect the immune response by improving the intestinal microbial balance leading to enhanced antibody production and phagocytic (devouring or killing) activity of white blood cells. Bifidobacterium lactis could be an effective probiotic dietary supplement for enhancing some aspects of cellular immunity in the elderly.

Effects of probiotic therapy in critically ill patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007.
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a major cause of mortality in intensive care units. A breakdown in gut barrier function and immune dysfunction are associated with the onset of MODS. This study assessed the efficacy of a probiotic compound in a viable and nonviable formulation in modulating intestinal permeability and immune function and preventing the onset of MODS in patients in the intensive care unit. Twenty-eight critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 treatments daily for 7 d: 1) placebo, 2) viable probiotics, or 3) equivalent probiotic sonicates. MODS scores and systemic concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG were measured on days –1, 4, and 7, and intestinal permeability measurements were taken daily. The patients responded to viable probiotics with a significantly larger increase in systemic IgA and IgG concentrations than in the patients who received placebo or sonicates. MODS scores were not significantly affected by probiotic treatment. Over the study period, intestinal permeability decreased in most patients. Patients receiving viable probiotics show a greater enhancement in immune activity than do patients receiving either placebo or probiotic bacterial sonicates.

Irritable bowel syndrome
Probiotic supplements may be helpful in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Benefit for respiratory infections
Children who take probiotic containing milk may suffer fewer respiratory infections.

Probiotic supplements after surgery
Obese patients who take probiotics after undergoing gastric bypass surgery lose more weight than patients who have the surgery but do not take the supplements.

Enteric coated
I am confused about conflicting information I've read about storage of probiotics. Some say you must take enteric-coated capsules so that the probiotics will bypass the stomach and stomach acid (which they say destroys the probiotics) and be released in the intestines. Other sources say that stomach acid does not destroy the probiotics and that enteric-coated capsules are an unnecessarily expensive method of getting your probiotics.
   We asked Dr. S.K. Dash, President of UAS Laboratories, Inc. He is an expert on this topic and the author of "The Consumer's Guide to Probiotics." He said, "Probiotics made by reliable companies are acid and bile resistant (97%). Probiotics do not need enteric coating.

Q. Is there any such thing as a probiotic suppository available for women to use to fight yeast infections. If so where can I get them and what are the ingredients?
   A. There are some products that are sold as being probiotic suppositories for women. However, we don't have any knowledge on how well they work. If you do a google search for " probiotic suppository " you will find them.

There is increasing awareness that the human gut microflora plays a critical role in maintaining host health, both within the gastrointestinal tract and, through the absorption of metabolites, systemically. The prebiotics concept, which was launched in 1995, concerns nondigested and selectively fermented carbohydrate food ingredients. It is thought that their effect in the colon could reduce risk for disease.
   One can increase the number of good bacteria in the body in two main ways: By taking probiotic supplements or eating yoghurt which directly supply good bacteria to the colon, or by ingesting prebiotics which help stimulate the growth of good bacteria.


Prebiotics and their health benefits, review of research
Prebiotics are food ingredients, mostly complex carbohydrates that are not digested, that stimulate the growth or activity of certain bacteria in the colon. The types of bacteria most often stimulated are bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. These are considered good bacteria and can provide various health benefits.
   Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the colon. The prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), is found naturally in many foods, such as wheat, onions, bananas, honey, garlic, or leeks. They can also be isolated from chicory root or synthesized enzymatically from sucrose. Fermentation of FOS in the colon results in a large number of physiologic effects including increasing the numbers of bifidobacteria in the colon, increasing calcium absorption, increasing fecal weight, shortening of gastrointestinal transit time, and possibly lowering blood lipid levels. The increase in bifidobacteria has been assumed to benefit human health by producing compounds to inhibit potential pathogens, by reducing blood ammonia levels, and by producing vitamins and digestive enzymes.
   See also
galactooligosaccharide information.


Benefit of prebiotics
In addition to colon health, prebiotics can improve the immune system and reduce the incidence of allergies.


Structural and functional aspects of prebiotics used in infant nutrition.
J Nutrition. 2008.
The effect of breast-feeding on the intestinal microbiota can not be attributed to a single compound, but there is accumulating evidence that human milk oligosaccharides play a crucial role. Because there is a broad consensus that the intestinal microbiota plays an important physiological role for the host, many attempts have been made to influence the intestinal flora by dietary interventions. This article summarizes results of intervention studies in which nonmilk oligosaccharides have been used to mimic the prebiotic effect of breast-feeding. A second focus has been related to the question of whether the prebiotic activity has beneficial effects on the postnatal development of the immune system. The data clearly demonstrate that prebiotics of nonmilk origin can mimic the prebiotic effect of breast-feeding, and this has positive consequences for the postnatal development of the immune system.


Types of Prebiotics formulas and products and in food

There are various types of prebiotics. Typical sources are unrefined wheat, oat, barley, soybeans, and Jerusalem artichokes (which contain inulin). Other prebiotics include fructo-oligosaccharides used as an artificial or alternative sweetener.


Fructo-oligosaccharide prebiotics
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are extracted from fruits, grains, vegetables, and herbs such as bananas, barley, wheat, asparagus, garlic, onions, tomatoes, burdock, and chicory root. Fructo-oligosaccharides can also be produced by degradation of inulin. The Jerusalem artichoke and its relative, yacón have very high concentrations of fructo-oligosaccharides. Fructo-oligosaccharides can also be produced by degradation of inulin.
   Fructo oligosaccharides (FOS) are dietary fibers that help keep the stomach and bowels healthy. They do this by nourishing and promoting the naturally present, "friendly" bacteria (Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in particular) capable of warding off infection in the digestive system. Because of these properties FOS is considered a "prebiotic."

Inulin prebiotic
Inulin fiber is a prebiotic. Inulin is available as a supplement for sale.


Eczema help

Infant formulas containing a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides may protect against the development of eczema or dermatitis in babies at high risk for allergic skin conditions. The research was conducted by Dr. Guenther Boehm from Numico Research Germany, Friedrichsdorf. Human breast milk contains natural prebiotics that promote the development of a healthy immune system, which can help prevent allergies. Boehm's team developed an infant formula based on the prebiotic content of human breast milk and tested its ability to reduce the incidence of skin allergy in a group of newborns whose mothers were unable to start or continue breastfeeding. These infants were at high risk for skin allergy because they had a parent with the condition. A total of 102 infants were fed a prebiotic -enriched infant formula and 104 were fed a normal formula. The children were seen on a monthly basis until the age of 6 months. Only 10 infants fed the prebiotic formula had signs of atopic dermatitis after six months, compared with 24 infants fed the normal formula. Tests on stool samples from 98 infants showed that the prebiotic group had significantly higher levels of the beneficial gut microbes bifidobacteria compared to the other group. Prebiotics can favorably affect development of the immune system of infants by altering the bacteria in the bowel and in so doing reduce the chances of skin allergy developing in at-risk infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2006.


Prebiotics and Probiotics in Disease
Probiotics (usually lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) and prebiotics (non-digestible oligosaccharides) have been shown to be useful in preventing certain disease conditions as well as possibly promoting specific aspects of health. Both may be helpful in malnutrition, particularly in lactose intolerance and calcium absorption, and in constipation.


An "optimal" gut microflora establishes an efficient barrier to the invasion and colonisation of the gut by pathogenic bacteria, produces a range of metabolic substrates which in turn are utilized by the host (e.g. vitamins and short chain fatty acids) and stimulates the immune system in a non-inflammatory manner. Although little is known about the individual species of bacteria responsible for these beneficial activities, it is generally accepted that the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli constitute important components of the beneficial gut microflora. A number of diet-based microflora management tools have been developed and refined over recent decades including probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic approaches. Each aims to stimulate numbers and/or activities of the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli within the gut microflora.


The Science

An alternative means to the use of probiotics of modulating the colonic microbial community is by the use of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Increasing knowledge of the metabolism of prebiotics by probiotics is allowing scientists to consider specifically targeting such dietary intervention tools at specific population groups and specific disease states.


Human Milk Oligosaccharides as Prebiotics
Human milk contains prebiotic oligosaccharides which stimulate the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The development of intestinal microflora in newborns is strictly related to the kind of feeding. Breast-fed infants, unlike the bottle-fed ones, have an intestinal ecosystem characterized by a strong prevalence of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Data available so far in the literature show that, among the numerous substances present in human milk, oligosaccharides have a clear prebiotic effect. They are quantitatively one of the main components of human milk and are only partially digested in the small intestine, so they reach the colon, where they stimulate selectively the development of bifidogenic flora. Such results have been recently proved both by characterization of oligosaccharides in breast-fed infant feces and by the study of intestinal microflora using new techniques of molecular analysis, confirming that human milk oligosaccharides represent the first prebiotics in humans.

I have gastroparesis and currently taking probiotics, can I take prebiotics as well. Actually I would also like to know what foods have prebiotics, I understand vegetables, fiber etc. but if you have gastroparesis, I am told I can't eat those ever again. Do you have further information about gastroparesis, that I might be able to get. The people that have this condition, get very little help, except to say, a feeding tube, or a pump, or drugs that have serious side effects....not interested, in any of that.
   Sorry but we are not familiar with the treatment of gastroparesis from a nutritional viewpoint. Most people can use probiotics and prebiotics supplements together. It is up to you and your physician to decide whether this combination is appropriate in your case. We wish you well.

The fruit of Phyllanthus umblica is called Indian gooseberry, also known as amla or amalaki.
Quercus infectoria is an herb tested for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.